What is the structure of the skin?
The skin is made up of three layers, the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, and stratum corneum or keratinocytes are the central cells that make up this layer. Creatinine secretion by these cells strengthens the skin and makes it resistant to rupture. The dermis is located just below the epidermal layer and contains supportive tissues such as blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The primary cells that consist in the dermis layer are fibroblasts, which secrete collagen and elastin that causes the skin to remain firm. The subcutaneous layer is a support layer for the dermis, and the blood vessels in the skin originate from this area.
How does skin aging occur?
Skin rejuvenation is due to the presence of intracellular proteins such as collagen, which are produced and secreted by fibroblast cells. With aging, the number of these cells in the skin layers decreases sharply, and due to the lack of proteins necessary for skin freshness, skin wrinkles gradually appear. More importantly, in addition to the process of aging, poor nutrition, obesity, chronic diseases, and sunlight can also reduce the number of these cells in the skin.
What are fibroblast cell and its functions in the skin?
Fibroblasts are spindle-shaped cells which are found in all parts of the body, including the skin. The body’s cells in order to exchange food and grow are placed in an environment which resembles a scaffold and holds the cells. These scaffolds are made up of minerals and fibrous proteins, all of which are produced and secreted by fibroblast cells in the skin.
How do skin fibroblasts regenerate?
All cells in the body can be regenerated and replaced in two ways; propagation of the cell itself and the differentiation of stem cells into the target cells. Due to the loss of fibroblast cells in the skin, they first have to multiply to reach a sufficient number, but this process only happens 5 or 6 times for each cell, and after that, the cell will not be able to multiply and will die. In this case, the stem cells in the tissue proliferate to differentiate into a new fibroblast cell. Stem cells can multiply in large numbers, and the process of multiplying will take a long time to stop.
How to repair wrinkles on the skin?
Since the movements of the skin muscles can increase the formation of such lines, one of the treatment methods is the use of drugs that can temporarily or permanently paralyze the muscles of the targeted area. Today, another common treatment method is the use of fillers which will be injected into specific areas. The injection of fibroblast cells can also repair such lesions.
What are fillers, and what are their advantages and disadvantages?
Fillers are mainly proteins such as collagen, which is one of the main ingredients in creating healthy and fresh skin. The advantage of using these materials, while improving skin lesions, is the quick and satisfying results after injection for enhancing lesions. However, these substances will be absorbed by the body, and usually, their therapeutic effects disappear after 3 to 6 months; therefore, the skin returns to its previous state. The use of these substances can cause problems for people who are sensitive to the proteins in these drugs. Consequently, the use of high-durability fillers can be dangerous for a person who is allergic to these substances.
What are the advantages of using fibroblast cells in treating skin lesions compared to conventional treatments?
Given that the main problem in the appearance of skin wrinkles is the decrease in the number and activity of fibroblast cells, then the injection of fibroblast cells can treat this problem more sustainably. Moreover, the effect of injections with fillers, such as collagen, is a maximum of 3 to 6 months.
On the other hand, because a person’s fibroblast cells are used for this purpose, there are no allergic reactions to collagen, unlike proteins that have been industrially isolated from humans or cows.
How are fibroblast cells produced and multiplied?
To make fibroblast cells, first, the patient is required to have a skin biopsy, which will be taken from behind the ear or areas that are not visible. Afterwards, the tissues are transported to the laboratory under standard and sterile conditions so that fibroblastic cells are separated using enzymatic digestion.
In the next step, the cells will be cultured in an appropriate environment which is fully controlled. These cells reach the desired number for transplantation after four to six weeks.
When do fibroblast cells will become effective the skin?
It usually takes 4 to 6 months for the cells in the skin to multiply enough to produce and secrete the nutrients needed to improve skin tissue. Therefore, the patient sees the effects after 4 to 6 months.
What is the success rate of fibroblast transplantation?
Studies have shown that injecting these cells will lead to the healing of skin wrinkles or acne scars or other sunken lesions with the success rate of 40-50%. However, it should be noted that about 10% of patients do not show a favourable response to this treatment method, and the underlying causes are not yet transparent and predictable.
Are there any complications with the Injections of Fibroblasts?
Because a person’s fibroblast cells are used in this procedure, there is no complication of cell rejection in this procedure. Also, in this method, tested materials are used which have been cultured and have not shown any proven side effects in humans. However, the injection of these cells has been shown to cause redness and swelling, bruising, and transient inflammation for one to three days at the transplant site.
What types of skin lesions can be treated by transplant fibroblast cells?
This method can be used to repair wrinkles on the laughter line, around the eyes, forehead lines, frown lines and improve the lesions left by facial pimples.